This module is a low cost solution for 2-way wireless communications using any host microcontroller with an SPI interface. The Nordic RF chip that powers the module does a lot of the heavy lifting involved in RF modulation/demodulation, antenna design, etc.
Although more complicated to use compared to a UART interface, the NRF24L01 module has an SPI interface. This is a 4 wire interface plus 2 wires for power. Software implementation has been simplified by libraries specific for this module.
The module operates at 3.3V and during peak communications, the total current drawn by the board may exceed 50mA. This poses several problems when connecting this board to the 3.3V pin of a normal Arduino board like the Uno, Nano or Mega which can only supply 50mA.
If you are using a Saleng Uno, this is not an issue, you may power the module directly from the 3.3V pin which can deliver more than enough current and has built in capacitors.
If you are using a normal Arduino board such as an Uno, Nano or Mega, it is recommended to use an external power source with proper bypass and bulk capacitors. Or you may use the NRF24L01 baseboard.
As with most wireless communication modules, we often get asked what is the range. The usual answer is “it depends” which could be frustrating at times. But going back to engineering theory, we would know that the range is dependent on several factors like obstructions, rain/fog, humidity, transmit power settings, antenna performance, etc. Many suppliers would give you a 100 meter range for this module but this may only be true under very ideal conditions like having a clear a line-of-sight and under ideal environment. Indoors, that range may drop drastically. The best way to determine range is to perform a range test in the actual application.